This implies that Israel did not have a king or kingdom at this time. The text also implies that Israel was as strong as the other cities mentioned, and not just a small tribe. "Linguistic Notes on Thutmose III's Topographical List." Egyptological Studies vol. The south to north order of the three city-states may provide a general location for Israel. "The World of Sinuhe." Israel Oriental Studies 9-408.
Both scholars Yurco and Rainey agree that these battle scenes are from Merneptah's reign (Yurco 1991, 61; Rainey 1992, 73-4; Hess 1993, 134).
Before the discovery of the Merneptah stele scholars placed the date of the exodus and entry into Canaan much later.
This stele puts a terminus ante quem date of 1210 BC for the exodus (Mc Carter 1992, 132).
There are two types of execration texts from the 12th Dynasty of Egypt.
There is an interesting place named in Joshua 15:9 and , "well of waters of Nephtoah," that may be the Hebrew name of Merneptah. "A Canaanite at Ugarit." Israel Exploration Journal 13.
The well which is probably anachronistically named after Merneptah would be near Jerusalem.
He states: Plundered is the Canaan with every evil; Carried off is Ashkelon; seized upon is Gezer; Yanoam is made as that which does not exist; Israel is laid waste, his seed is not; (ANET 1969, 378).
The word "Israel" here is written in Egyptian with the determinative for people rather than land (ANET 1969, 378 note 18).
The Execration texts seems to parallel the time of the patriarchs.