This study contributes to the limited knowledge of food strategies as observed in the middle HRV.
The results indicate that the mixed farming of rice and millet first appeared in the later phase of the middle Neolithic in the regions of the Peiligang Culture, then developed quite rapidly in the late Neolithic (6.8–5.0 ka BP), finally becoming the main subsistence economy at the end of the Neolithic in the upper HRV.
However, there are obvious differences in the emergence and development of agriculture between the middle and upper HRV.
In general, millet was more widely cultivated than rice in the upper HRV, but rice occupied the same or a slightly more prominent position in the middle HRV at the end of the Neolithic.
These results are significant for understanding the process of agricultural development and transformation, as well as human adaptation to climatic and cultural variability duringthe Neolithic.. The emergence, development and regional differences of mixed farming of rice and millet in the upper and middle Huai River The upper-middle Huai River valley (HRV) is located in the transition zone in the middle of eastern China.
BP, which includes the period of climatic variations commonly called the " Little Ice Age ".
Furthermore, based on a comparison between ancient and modern wild rice, as well as some indica (Huixiang 9126), japonica (Bijing 37) cultivars, it is demonstrated that the grain size of wild rice, in contrast to the double-peaked phytolith and starch granule parameters, changed little during the " Little Ice Age " of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in China, and that in terms of grain shape analysis wild rice is easily confused with indica.Starch grains were also found on the used surfaces of grinding stone implements as well as pestles, which means that these stone tools were used for food processing.In addition, axes from Shunshanji may also have been used for food processing as well as wood working because starches were also found on the edge of axes.Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), the ancestor of Asian domesticated rice (Oryza sative), is used as a compar-ator for identifying Oryza species in archaeological records.However, little attention has been paid to the characteristics...In this paper, starch grain analysis was carried out on 17 stone tools and 29 cauldron pottery sherds unearthed at Shunshanji (8.5–7.0 kyr BP), which is known as the earliest Neolithic site in the middle HRV excavated so far.